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3-Fluorophenmetrazine, also known as 3F-Phenmetrazine, PAL-593, and 3-FPM, is a novel stimulant substance within the phenylmorpholine class.
Development and Emergence
3-FPM is a derivative of phenmetrazine, a stimulant with a clinical history of use as an anorectic in Europe during the 1950s.
Pharmacology and Synthesis
Synthesis and Usage
The synthesis and pharmacology of 3-FPM were first documented in a patent filed in 2011. Reports of human use began to surface in early 2015 after it became available for sale on the online research chemical market.
Users of 3-FPM often describe a range of subjective effects, including stimulation, enhanced focus, thought acceleration, and euphoria. Notably, it shares similarities with classical stimulants like amphetamine. Many describe 3-FPM as producing a relatively subtle and controlled stimulant effect, which may lead to fewer side effects such as nervousness, insomnia, and excessive euphoria. This makes it a potential candidate for use as a study aid or productivity enhancer. However, anecdotal reports suggest that some individuals may experience serious nervous system reactions to 3-FPM.
3-Fluorophenmetrazine, or 3-FPM, is a synthetic molecule within the amphetamine family. This class of molecules features a phenethylamine core with a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain, often with a methyl substitution at Rα. 3-FPM stands out due to the presence of a fluorine atom at R3 of the phenyl ring. Additionally, it incorporates part of its amphetamine skeleton into a morpholine ring. At R2 of its chain, an oxygen group is attached, with an ethyl chain linking it to the terminal amine of the amphetamine chain, forming a morpholine group. In essence, 3-FPM is a fluorinated derivative of phenmetrazine.
Mechanism of Action
How it Operates
The primary pharmacological action of 3-FPM revolves around its role as a sympathomimetic drug. It acts as a releasing agent for dopamine and norepinephrine, increasing their concentrations in the synaptic clefts of neurons in the brain. This accumulation of neurotransmitters leads to the experience of euphoric and stimulating effects. Worth noting is the historical usage of its parent compound, phenmetrazine, which was once marketed as an appetite suppressant in the 1960s and 1970s but was eventually withdrawn from the market due to concerns of abuse and addiction.
3-FPM exhibits various physical effects, including stimulation, an increase in heart rate (albeit milder than some other stimulants), stamina enhancement, appetite suppression (though generally less intense than with amphetamine or methamphetamine), increased perspiration, dehydration, frequent urination, dry mouth, vasoconstriction, variations in libido (both increasing and decreasing are reported), pupil dilation, and teeth grinding (with this effect being considered less intense compared to substances like MDMA and many other stimulants).
Cognitive effects of 3-FPM encompass a range of experiences, including anxiety, analysis enhancement, disinhibition (more pronounced at higher doses), cognitive euphoria (albeit less intense than with other stimulants like amphetamine, cocaine, or methamphetamine), ego inflation, focus enhancement (most effective at low to moderate doses, as higher doses can impair concentration), motivation enhancement (functional even at moderate to high doses), immersion enhancement, increased music appreciation, thought acceleration, time distortion (often described as the experience of time passing more rapidly than usual), and enhanced wakefulness.
Following the use of 3-FPM, individuals may experience after effects, often referred to as "comedowns." These after effects can include anxiety, cognitive fatigue, depression, irritability, suppression of motivation, thought deceleration, wakefulness, and derealization.
Alterations in Vision
The visual effects of 3-FPM tend to be relatively mild and less consistent, with pronounced effects occurring at higher dosages and during states of sleep deprivation. These visual effects include alterations in brightness, which users frequently report in their subjective experiences.
Toxicity and Harm Potential
Potential Health Risks
There is limited available information regarding the toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 3-FPM use. This lack of data is due to its relatively short history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence suggests that 3-FPM is generally well-tolerated, with most users experiencing few side effects at low to moderate doses. However, there are reports of some users encountering flu-like symptoms, including muscle and joint aches, fever, chills, and headaches, particularly on the comedown of 3-FPM. These symptoms have been speculated to be related to systemic inflammation induced by the substance. Consequently, it is advisable for new users to exercise caution in dosing to gauge their physiological response to 3-FPM.
Dependence and Abuse Potential
Risk of Dependency
As with other stimulants, chronic use of 3-FPM carries the potential for addiction and psychological dependence, particularly among certain individuals. Users often develop tolerance to many of its effects with prolonged and repeated use, leading to the need for larger doses to achieve the same effects. Tolerance reduction typically occurs within 3 to 7 days, returning to baseline within 1 to 2 weeks in the absence of further consumption. Importantly, 3-FPM exhibits cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after using 3-FPM, other stimulants will have a reduced effect.
The legal status of 3-FPM varies by country and region. For instance, it is controlled under the New Psychoactive Substances Act in Germany and is illegal to buy, sell, or possess in Israel. The public health agency in Sweden suggested classifying it as an illegal narcotic. In Switzerland, it is considered a controlled substance, and in Turkey, it is classified as illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import. In the United Kingdom, it is illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act. In the United States, 3-FPM may be considered an analogue of phenmetrazine, a Schedule II drug, and is considered an illegal Schedule I controlled substance in the state of Virginia and its isomers such as 4-FPM.